PV BaronPoint provides hydrocarbon products to wide and varied wholesale customers with an emphasis on Vietnam and Southeast Asian exit markets. We strive to deliver cleaner burning and more efficient fuels, and our products and services are designed to meet the needs of National Oil Company, State-Owned Enterprises, Major Airlines and Fuel Aggregators, and Top-tier trading houses — servicing a wide range of needs including consumer, industrial, construction, aviation and shipping.
Jet fuel is a colorless, combustible, straight run petroleum distillate liquid, with its principal uses being as an ingredient in lamp oils, charcoal starter fluids, jet engine fuels and insecticides. This class of fuel provides a good balance of properties currently required for aviation fuels, in which energy density, operational issues, cost, and safety all need to be taken into account.
Aviation fuels fall into two basic groups: 1) aviation gasoline, for use in reciprocating or piston engines; and 2) aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels), for use in turbo-fan, turbo-jet and turbo-prop engines. There is a third group known as power boost fluids but these are low volume specialist fuels.
Aviation fuels are produced to stringent manufacturing specifications to promote global distribution and consumption. At every stage between refinery and aircraft tank, fuel quality is checked by sampling and laboratory analysis, to ensure that the fuel conforms to the requirements specified for the grade when it is delivered to the aircraft.
Aviation fuel is often dispensed from a truck which is driven up to parked airplanes and helicopters. When the fuel is being transported it is clearly marked on the trucks and pipes that the fuel is “Jet A”. The average consumption of this fuel is over 22 billion barrels annually.
Regardless of the method, aviation fuel is transferred to an aircraft via one of two methods: overwing and underwing. Overwing fuelling is used on smaller planes, helicopters, and all piston-engine aircraft, and is similar to automobile fuelling — one or more gas ports are opened and fuel is pumped in with a conventional pump. Underwing fuelling, also called single-point, is typically used on larger aircraft.
Summary of Jet Fuel Grades
Jet A-1 (RUSSIAN AVIATION KEROSENE JET FUEL, JET A-1 DEF STAN 91-91)
Jet A-1 is a kerosene grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It has a flash point minimum of 38 degrees C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47 degrees C. It is widely available outside the U.S.A. The main specifications for Jet A-1 grade are the UK specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1) Nato code F-35, (formerly DERD 2494) and the ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1).
TS-1 Regular Kerosene (RUSSIAN CIVIL AVIATION KEROSENE GOST 10227-86)
TS-1 is the main jet fuel grade available in Russian and CIS states. It is a kerosene type fuel with slightly higher volatility (flash point is 28C minimum) and lower freeze point (<-50C) compared to Jet A-1.
Jet A is a kerosine grade fuel, normally only available in the U.S.A. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C). It is supplied against the ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification.
Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosene fractions. It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1 but because it is more difficult to handle (higher flammability), there is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important. ASTM have a specification for Jet B but in Canada it is supplied against the Canadian Specification CAN/CGSB 3.23
EN590 describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if sold in the European Union and several other European countries.
Gas oil supplied for use in road vehicles (“white diesel”) has been subject to this lower sulphur limit for several years, and sulphur-free gas oil is needed to ensure the reliable operation of pollutant emissions control systems in the European Union and several other European countries.
Ultra-Low Sulphur Diesel (“ULSD”) is a D2 class diesel fuel distillate that results from a severe hydrofinishing process. This ULSD product is in line with the U.S. EPA’s new mandate of less than 15 ppm sulphur content. It improves environmental conditions by reducing unwanted emissions into the atmosphere. ULSD has a high Cetane Index of 51, thus improving fuel combustion, reducing white smoke on startup, and tending to reduce NOX and PM emissions. ULSD generally looks lighter in color and has less smell than other diesel fuels.
ULSD is mostly for use in engines whose load size and speed remain relatively consistent. This diesel fuel has a greater energy output, and a better fuel economy. ULSD is required for use in model year 2007 vehicles and up equipped with advanced emission control systems in the U.S.
by means of a process of fractional distillation of crude oil petroleum. It is primarily used as a diesel fuel in heating and automotive applications.
Diesel D2 Gasoil is a specific distillate fraction of fuel oil that is used in diesel engines invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. Diesel D2 Gasoil, including 7.3L and the 6.0L, are also used to lubricate engines and to fire the injectors.
To ensure that clients are provided with suitable D2 products, there are ISO industry standards that suppliers must adhere to. GOST 305-82 is a cleaner D2 distillate with lower sulphur content. GOST is a variant of Gasoil and D2 that is in line with ISO industry standards with a lower sulphur content maximum of 0.05%. This version of D2 has helped with reducing pollution in many cities, relative to older, traditional Gasoils.
Overwhelmingly the term Diesel refers to fuel that is processed from petroleum, but increasingly, alternatives such as biofuel that are not derived from petroleum are being developed — its brand name being “B20”.
Unfortunately, the cost of production of B20 is still very high and therefore it, as a rule, is used only as the additive which volume in mix with oil fuel does not usually exceed 20%. Such ratio of biodiesel content in B20 has gained its greatest distribution in Europe.
CST 180/380 is a type of fuel oil that is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation. This can be either as a residue or as a distillate. Generally speaking, CST 180 fuel oil is any liquid petroleum that can be burned in a boiler or furnace that ultimately generates heat or used for the generation of power in engines.
CST 180 that meets the Russian GOST Standards are available in four grades: Very Low Sulphur, Low Sulphur, Normal and High Sulphur. Very Low Sulphur CST 180 generally tends to have higher prices since it is purer and it demands more complex refining techniques in order to be produced. It also tends to burn “cleaner” than the grades that have additional sulphur.
CST 180 fuel oil can be used for heating businesses, homes and factories. It is also used as maritime fuel on large ships and also can help generate power, typically for large commercial engines. This fuel is made of long hydrocarbon chains, alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics.
These fuels are heavier than gasoline and generate large amounts of heat when burning. With relatively high heating value and low corrosivity, these fuel oils can also be used as burning fuel for boilers. As the flash point is quite high, fuel oil is fairly safe during usage and storing.
Fuel oil is widely used as bunker boiler fuel, burning boiler fuel, metallurgical and industrial boiler fuel. It is applied in the power generation, petrochemical, transportation, building and steel industries.
One of the common uses for this fuel oil is in the marine industry. There are two basic types of marine fuels – distillate and residual. A third type is a mixture of these two, commonly called “intermediate”. Distillate fuel is composed of petroleum fractions of crude oil that are separated in a refinery by a boiling or “distillation” process. Residual fuel or “residuum” is the fraction that did not boil, sometimes referred to as “tar” or “petroleum pitch”. Fuel for marine use in engines and boilers has various types and grades, depending on the end usage requirements.
CST 380 grade fuel oil is a premium quality product which is typically more clean than other fuel oils, and has no blended additives or particles. As a result, there is no need to centrifuge or for a filtering system to process this fuel. CST 180 differs from CST 380 in that CST 180 has a maximum viscosity at 180 Centistokes, while CST 380 has a maximum viscosity at 380 Centistokes.
Mazut is heavy, low-grade fuel oil, primarily used in industrial boilers and other direct source heating applications and generating plants. It is also used as a principal fuel in marine applications in large diesel engines. Given its high boiling point consistency, it typically requires heating before it can be moved through pipes or dispensed into a boiler or other heating vessel to be burned.
In the United States and Western Europe, Mazut is blended or broken down with the end product being diesel. Mazut may be used for heating houses in CIS (former USSR countries) and in countries in the Far East such as China that do not have the facilities to blend or break it down into more traditional petro-chemicals.
Mazut is the least expensive of the refined oil fuels and can only be used by facilities that have preheating capabilities. It is typically high in sulphur and other impurities that are released into the air when the fuel is burned.
The use of Mazut releases sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere, a key component of acid rain. The sulphur contained in heavy fuel oil also forms sulphate particles that contribute to the formation of fine particulate matter.
Heavy fuel oil consists largely of residues from crude oils refining. These residues are blended with suitable gas oil fractions in order to achieve the viscosity required for convenient handling. Since the sulphur contained in the crude oil is concentrated in the residue material heavy fuel oils may contain large quantities of heavy metals such as nickel and vanadium and also sediments and water.
Mazut M-100 is a fuel oil that is manufactured according to the Russian GOST norm 10585-75 and Russian GOST norm 10585-99. The 75-product (70% of total export) can be processed to Diesel.
Base Oil is the foundation of commercial oil, but without the necessary additives. In principle, the raw material for lubricants can be any mineral and/or a synthetic based lubricant, and like all other modern industrial materials Base Oil consists of a base material. Therefore, the petrochemical industry produces limited base oils that blend with each other and with additives for factories to produce commercial oils and service oils with the desired performance characteristics to satisfy the needs of many customers at once.
In the case of Diesel D6 Virgin fuel oil, the Base Oil is supplemented with additives that improve the functional properties of the commercial oil transforming it into Diesel D6 Virgin fuel oil.
Diesel D6 Virgin fuel oil is a residual fuel oil which is less useful due to its high viscosity, and as a result it has to be pre-heated with a special heating system before use. It also contains a relatively high amount of pollutants, particularly sulphur, which forms sulphur dioxide upon combustion.
However, its undesirable properties make it very cheap. In fact, it is the cheapest liquid fuel available. Since Diesel D6 Virginfuel oil requires pre-heating before use, this residual fuel oil cannot be used in road vehicles, boats or small ships, as the heating equipment takes up valuable space and makes the vehicle heavier.
During the refining process of crude oil, fractions of liquid petroleum, gas and diesel are removed from the product, which results in a semi-solid hydrocarbon being left behind. This oil based product is known as Bitumen. Bitumen is commonly used in road surfacing, paving and roofing applications. 85% of the world’s production of bitumen is used to build roads. Sand, crushed rock, gravel and bitumen is the mixture used to create a reliable road surface.
The adhesive and waterproofing properties of bitumen and bituminous products are greatly appreciated and sought after. Various grades of bitumen are available on the market, and each grade is specified to be used for certain applications. All bitumen is tested before being graded.
Bitumen is a category of organically-based liquids that are highly viscous, black, and sticky. Refined bitumen is the residual fraction (bottom) obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil. It is the heaviest fraction and the one with the highest boiling point, boiling at 525°C (977°F).
Bitumen is also known as asphalt or tar. Bitumen was mixed with other materials throughout prehistory and throughout the world for use as a sealant, adhesive, building mortar, incense, and decorative application on pots, buildings.
The material is also useful in waterproofing boats and other water transport.
Crude Oil is most commonly purchased by trading companies and then resold to refineries throughout the world for further refining into a wide variety of petro-chemical products (see chart on right). Spot market pricing is recorded in many terminals, globally. Crude Oil has very deep liquidity, and trades on a global scale which adds to its appeal for the petroleum business.
Baron Point Petroleum possess a prominent team of market professionals with an outstanding reputation spanning several decades in global finance, infrastructure, international trade, along with deep ties in the Middle East and West Africa.
As an allocation holder that contracts directly with the source, we can provide a regular and large supply of Crude Oil to your refinery with competitive margins and a compelling risk profile.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or “LPG” for short, is the generic name for commercial propane and commercial butane. Whatever the size or nature of a commercial operation, there is generally a mixture of butane, propane and other light hydrocarbons derived from refining crude oil to suit the commercial use. At normal temperatures LPG is a gas, but it can be cooled or subjected to pressure to facilitate storage and transportation.
LPG is gaining international support as an environmentally friendly automotive fuel, particularly in towns and cities where vehicles cause specific pollution problem. The automotive use of LPG has an excellent safety record and various crash test and fire test have proved the strength and integrity of LPG as a fuel.
In addition, because of its mobility, LPG can be put to a number of other uses such as:
- Building and civil engineering sites;
- Agricultural machinery; and
- Heating and cooking on boats (fuel for internal combustion engine), and also including cars, vans, buses and generators/pumps
Liquefied Natural Gas or “LNG” for short, is a natural gas cooled to roughly -267° F at normal air pressure. It is odorless, non-toxic, non-corrosive and less dense than water.
Natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, and produces less emissions and pollutants than either coal or oil. As a liquid, LNG is not explosive, LNG vapor will only explode if it is kept an enclosed space under pressure.
The conversion of natural gas into liquid is called liquefaction and is achieved through refrigeration. Liquefaction reduces the volume by approximately 600 times, making it more economical to transport between continents in specially designed ships. LNG is converted back to gas by passing the liquid through vaporizers that warm it.
Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (typically, at least 90%), but may also contain ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. Small quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulphur compounds, and water may also be found in “pipeline” natural gas. The liquefaction process removes the oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulphur compounds, and water. The process can also be designed to purify the LNG to almost 100% methane.